Faience is a glazed ceramic known for producing bright colours, especially blues, turquoises and greens. It is produced from quartz or sand crystals mixed with other compounds, finished with a vitreous alkaline glaze to the surface. Faience glimmers in the light and was believed by the Egyptians to represent rebirth and immortality. During the Predynastic period only green and blue faience occurred, however from the Old Kingdom and onwards alternative colours such as black, yellow and red were added to the palette. The colours had different symbolisms for example, blue was thought to reflect fertility and life. Faience was manufactured into amulets and jewellery, the substance was used to create scarabs, furniture and cups.
The combination of colours used in Egyptian jewellery was highly significant to the Egyptians. Carnelian, lapis lazuli and turquoise were frequently paired together, the combined colours having their own apotropaic value. Lapis lazuli and turquoise were expensive semi-precious stones, imported and reserved mostly for the wealthy. Carnelian was locally sourced and was more widely available. Lapis lazuli, a rich blue stone, symbolised the heavens. Turquoise, as a green-toned stone, was symbolic of life and vegetation. Carnelian was associated with the sun and protection. Whilst semi-precious stones were not always available to all classes, the colours associated with such symbolism; blue, green and red, could be achieved through other materials. Some Egyptians opted to used dark blue faience, turquoise faience and carnelian. Whilst others would opt to also include red faience to replace carnelian. Regardless the combined colour combination of blue, turquoise and red was highly symbolic and features aesthetically across many different mediums.