In ancient Mesopotamian religion, Humbaba was a giant raised by Utu, the Sun god. He was the doorkeeper of the Cedar Forest where the gods lived, and was regarded as a very dangerous and fearsome monster. In the end Humbaba is decapitated by Enkidu and Gilgamesh and his head is put in a leather sack. Heads like these were used as amulets since they were believed to be apotropaic. The iconography of the apotropaic severed head of Humbaba is documented from the First Babylonian Dynasty to the Achaemenid rule. It finds a Greek parallel in the myth of Perseus and the head of Medusa, similarly placed in his leather sack. This piece features a suspension loop and is suitable for modern wear. Its back is unworked.
The Sumerians were the first civilisation to settle in the lands of Southern Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This area later became Babylonia and is now known as southern Iraq, stretching from Baghdad to the Persian Gulf. The first civilisation in Sumer was that of the Ubaidians – they actively practised agriculture by draining the marshes for agriculture, they started trade and established new forms of ancient pottery and crafts.