In the ancient world, seals guaranteed the authenticity of marked ownership. As such, they were instrumental in legal transactions, and in the protection of goods against theft. Mesopotamia has been regarded as the cradle of ancient glyphic arts, with the earliest cylinder seals proven to have been firstly executed during the Bronze Age, circa 4th Millennium BC. Each following period in ancient Mesopotamian history contributed in developing styles and techniques of glyphic arts. Zoomorphic, mythical creatures and religious or cultic scenes are one of the most favoured decorative repertoires applied on seals of the period.
Urartu, also known as the Kingdom of Urartu or the Kingdom of Van, was a civilization, which developed in the Bronze and Iron Age of ancient Armenia, eastern Turkey. The name of the geographic region Urartu comes from Assyrian sources. Urartian art was heavily influenced by neighbouring Assyria, hence the similarities in some of its art. Urartian craftsmen have been characterised by practising the copying of old examples instead of improving them, as well as their preference for ornamental rather than representational scenes of life, as most commonly seen in Assyrian art.